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    Default Re:FAQ File

    Is this the file you are referring to? John


    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <[email protected]>

    LAST UPDATED 20 January, 2009

    - "Prime Rib," see section 3 (Glossary of Culinary Terms)

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    |Copyright © Victor Sack 2003-2009, Copyright © Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright © Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright © Cindy |
    |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright © by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |
    | |
    |Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or |
    |substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is |
    |explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or |
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    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at
    http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to
    news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hie...unce/newusers/
    or from
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hie...ers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
    postings:

    What is Usenet?
    A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community
    Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet
    Rules for posting to Usenet
    Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette
    Hints on writing style for Usenet
    Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It
    How To Find the Right Place To Post

    The moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent Web site
    with helpful links to basic Usenet information. The site is at
    http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/.

    The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at
    http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/nquote.shtml.

    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from
    http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
    know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
    archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
    anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those
    without FTP access should send e-mail to [email protected] with
    "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <[email protected]>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sautéing (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute
    all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British
    Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for
    castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in
    rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is solid, white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil. (A
    popular brand name is Crisco, and many people call all shortening
    Crisco.) It is common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of
    the globe. In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute
    butter or margarine for shortening. The result will have a slightly
    different texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say,
    chocolate chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this
    doesn't work too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it
    out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as
    "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining
    various minerals. Produced near the town of Guérande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but
    creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for
    seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight
    cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk
    Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225°F 110°C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250°F 130°C 1/2
    275°F 140°C 1 cool
    300°F 150°C 2
    325°F 170°C 3 very moderate
    350°F 180°C 4 moderate
    375°F 190°C 5
    400°F 200°C 6 moderately hot
    425°F 220°C 7 hot
    450°F 230°C 8
    475°F 240°C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/
    cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0
    almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8
    almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9
    anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2
    apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1
    apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4
    bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9
    bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7
    bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3
    bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4
    basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0
    beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0
    beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3
    beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5
    biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7
    blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2
    brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7
    bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9
    butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3
    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9
    cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1
    candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4
    candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/
    cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1
    cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3
    celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5
    cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1
    cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3
    cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2
    cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7
    chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0
    chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0
    chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1
    chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0
    chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2
    cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5
    cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1
    coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3
    coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1
    coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2
    cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9
    cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7
    cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0
    cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8
    crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5
    currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/
    cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1
    egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5
    egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7
    eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3
    evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5
    farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1
    flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7
    flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1
    flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0
    flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9
    flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1
    flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7
    flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9
    flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1
    flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7
    flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0
    flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7
    fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0
    garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3
    garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5
    ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2
    ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3
    ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1
    grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3
    gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/
    cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9
    honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9
    kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9
    lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5
    lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0
    macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7
    margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5
    marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0
    mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8
    mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5
    milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5
    milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7
    molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9
    mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0
    mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3
    mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4
    mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7
    mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7
    mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0
    oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5
    oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5
    oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3
    oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8
    olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3
    olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0
    onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7
    orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/
    cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7
    parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0
    pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1
    pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7
    peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3
    peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0
    pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4
    peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9
    pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0
    poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4
    potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0
    potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8
    potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3
    rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8
    rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1
    rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9
    salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2
    scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0
    sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3
    shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2
    sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/
    cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0
    strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0
    sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3
    sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7
    sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3
    sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7
    sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7
    sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2
    sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6
    syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9
    tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3
    tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0
    tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3
    tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0
    turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1
    vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3
    walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7
    walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8
    walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3
    water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2
    wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0
    wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9
    yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or
    Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican
    incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The
    species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles,
    casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in
    diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion,
    garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING
    ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional Balsamic
    Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies (small, sweet cakes). In
    the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour, milk, and shortening,
    usually
    served with breakfast - small, and similar to what much of the world refers
    to
    as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes
    thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the
    outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautéed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is
    actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane
    noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalapeño.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is
    typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CRÈME FRAÎCHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also
    portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all
    essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJÃO - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly
    sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal,
    chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5

    GRAVLAX - Also called gravad lax. Scandinavian cured salmon. 'Gravad'
    literally means 'buried'. Originally, salmon and other fish was
    'buried' in the ground, or under snow and ice, to preserve it and to
    keep it cool. Now, the salmon is cured in salt-sugar-pepper-dill mixture
    while under refrigeration.

    GREEN ONIONS - see Scallions

    GREEN SHALLOTS - an inaccurate but occasionally used name for Scallions.

    GRILL - In the UK, the same as US broiler; in the US, a device for
    cooking food over a charcoal or gas fire, outdoors. Also see Broiling.

    GRITS - Usually a breakfast item in the US Southern region. Made from
    the kernel of corn. When corn has been soaked in lye and the casing has
    been removed it becomes Hominy. The lye is rinsed out very well and the
    corn is left to harden. Then the swollen hominy is ground up to the
    texture of tiny pellets. Grits are cooked very much like rice, i.e.
    boiled in water, usually with some salt (except you must stir grits).
    Butter is most commonly added after cooking. It's used as a side dish
    for a good old fashioned Southern breakfast. Eggs are frequently mixed
    in with the grits (after having been served separately). Sometimes they
    are made with cheese and garlic for a casserole. They are also served
    with gravy, shrimps, etc.

    HABANERO PEPPER - A type of hot chili. The Scotch Bonnet Pepper is
    similar.

    HALF AND HALF - a mixture of half cream and half whole milk

    HARD ROLLS - A sandwich type of roll that is a little crusty on the
    outside and soft on the inside. Can be made with poppy seeds or sesame
    seeds or plain. Often called a Kaiser roll.

    HARICOT - bean, in French. Haricot blanc: white bean, usually dried.
    H. gris: green string bean mottled with purplish black; also called
    pélandron. H. rouge: red kidney bean. H. vert: green bean, usually
    fresh, also called French bean.

    HARISSA - Harissa is a paste of chilis and garlic used to enhance North
    African food (and is fairly popular in other parts of the Mideast,
    though it is probably of Berber origin). It is fairly similar to the
    Indonesian sambal olek.

    HAZELNUTS - A small nut with a hard, glossy shell. Also known as
    filberts.

    HEAVY CREAM - see section 1.3

    HERBES DE PROVENCE - A mixture of dried herbs widely used in (French)
    cooking. Consists of thyme, oregano, summer savory and marjoram.
    Bayleaf is often included, too. Depending on the dish, some or more of
    the following can also be included: fennel, rosemary, basil, tarragon,
    sage, lavender.

    HIJIKI (HEE-JEE-KEE) - A type of dried black seaweed with an anise-type
    flavour that's reconstituted in water and used as a vegetable in soups
    and other dishes.

    HING - Also known as asafoetida, and devil's dung. A light brown resin
    sometimes used as a substitute for garlic and onions, or in its own
    right and not as a substitute for anything, it can be found in Indian
    groceries. Claimed properties : laxative, aphrodisiac, colic cure. A
    required ingredient in the Indian Tadkaa - the small amount of oil used
    to roast mustard seeds and similar other ingredients before adding them
    to the main dish.

    HUNDREDS AND THOUSANDS - Also known as sprinkles or as nonpareils:
    small round balls of multicoloured sugar used as toppings on cakes and
    desserts.

    ICING SUGAR - US confectioner's sugar.

    JICAMA (HEE-KAH-MAH) - Often referred to as the Mexican potato, it's a
    large root vegetable with a thick brown skin and white crunchy flesh
    with a slightly sweet flavour. It should be peeled before eating raw or
    boiling to cook. Raw, it often appears in Mexican-style recipes for
    salads.

    KAFFIR LIME LEAVES - These leaves have a mysterious flora-citrus aroma.
    They are used to liven up many Asian dishes, like soups.

    KALAMATA OLIVES (kahl-uh-MAH-tuh) - An almond-shaped Greek olive that
    has a rich fruity flavour; not at all like the commonly found tangy,
    salty Spanish olives.

    KASHA - A Russian word meaning porridge or gruel made from any kind
    of cereal, the grain being either whole or variously split or cracked.
    There are millet, semolina, oat, buckwheat, rice, etc., kashas. In the
    US-English, kasha, for some reason, came to mean buckwheat groats.

    KETCHUP - Also called catsup. Today, ketchup is mostly tomato-based
    condiment or sauce, but numerous other versions, such as mushroom or
    fruit-based ketchups, exist, too. Vinegar, spices and sugar are often
    present in the ingredient lists. According to the OED, both ketchup and
    catsup are English variant spellings of the Chinese (Amoy dialect)
    'keochiap' or 'ke-tsiap', 'brine of pickled fish or shellfish'.

    KEY LIMES - Citrus fruit, about the size of golf balls, and round. The
    fruits are pale yellow-green, the juice is yellow and very tart, more so
    than standard limes. Grow in Florida, the Keys and other tropical
    places in the Caribbean. Used in Key Lime Pie, with egg yolks and
    condensed milk and in a Sunset Key with amaretto.

    KIWANO (KEE-WAH-NOH) - This oval fruit has a bright yellow skin studded
    with stubby "horns," which is why it's also called a horned melon. The
    pulp is pale yellow-green with a jelly-like texture that tastes like a
    tart combination of banana and cucumbers. Mostly eaten as a fresh
    fruit.

    LADYFINGERS - little, fairly dry, finger-shaped sponge cakes. "Ladies'
    fingers" is another name for okra.

    LEMONADE - in the US, a drink made of lemon juice, sugar and water; in
    the UK, a carbonated drink that doesn't necessarily contain anything
    closer to a lemon than a bit of citric acid. Sprite (TM) and 7-Up (TM)
    are examples of what would be called lemonade in many countries. I am
    informed that in France and Belgium "limonade" is used as a general term
    for soft drinks (Coke/Sprite/Fanta/etc.), although when I was in France
    (1998) requesting du limonade always brought me something Sprite-like
    (but usually much nicer). Perhaps it is regional, or people know that
    when customers with shocking accents request "limonade" they definitely
    mean lemonade.

    LIMA BEAN - also called butter bean, Madagascar bean.

    LOX - Brine-cured salmon, which may or may not be also cold-smoked.

    MALANGA - the word used in the Spanish-speaking parts of the Caribbean
    for Taro root (or a close relative of Taro). It is prepared by either
    boiling and mashing like potatoes, or slicing and frying into chips. It
    is also used in soups as a thickening agent.

    MARROW - US summer squash. Also 'vegetable marrow'.

    MASA HARINA - Masa is a paste made by soaking maize in lime (similar to
    the method for preparing hominy) and then grinding it up. Masa harina
    is the flour made by drying and powdering masa. It is used in Mexican
    cooking for items such as corn tortillas. The literal meaning is "dough
    flour".

    MASCARPONE - A soft Italian cheese (similar to cream cheese) with around
    50% butterfat. An important ingredient in Tiramisu.

    MELON - a family of fruits. All have a thick, hard, inedible rind,
    sweet meat, and lots of seeds. Common examples: watermelon, cantaloupe
    (aka rock melon).

    MESCLUN (MEHS-KLUHN) - Also called salad mix and gourmet salad mix, it's
    simply a potpourri of young, small salad greens.

    MIRIN - sweetened sake (Japanese rice wine)

    MIXED SPICE - A classic mixture generally containing caraway, allspice,
    coriander, cumin, nutmeg & ginger, although cinnamon & other spices can
    be added. It is used with fruit & in cakes. (In America 'Pumpkin Pie
    Spice' is very similar).

    MOLASSES - see section 1.5

    MUSTARD OIL - This spicy oil is extensively used in Bengali and some
    other Indian cuisines. It is said that it is very hard, if not
    impossible, to find good quality mustard oil outside of India. In the
    'Western' countries, mustard oil is required to be sold with a "for
    external use only" warning, since it contains allyl isothiocyanate and
    erucic acid, both of which have been implicated in some health problems.
    (This entry is based on Shankar Bhattacharyya's postings)

    NAM PLA (NAHM-PLAH) - Popular in Thailand, this is a salty, fermented
    fish sauce, made with anchovies, with an extremely strong odour. Also
    known as nuoc nam in Vietnam and shottsuru in Japan, it is used as a
    condiment.

    NAVY BEAN - also called Boston bean, Great Northern bean, pea bean,
    pearl haricot.

    NOPALES (NOH-PAH-LAYS) - Long popular in Mexico, these fleshy oval
    leaves are from the prickly pear cactus. They range in colour from pale
    to dark green and have a delicate, slightly tart green-bean flavour.
    Before use, the thorns must be removed with a vegetable peeler. The
    flesh is cut into small pieces or strips, simmered in water until tender
    and used in a variety of dishes, from scrambled eggs to salads.

    NORI (NOH-REE) - These paper-thin sheets of dried seaweed can range in
    colour from dark green to dark purple to black. They have a sweet ocean
    taste and are popular at Japanese meals or are used to make sushi.

    NUTELLA - A thick smooth paste made from chocolate and hazelnuts, made
    by the Ferrero company of Italy. Doesn't seem to be particularly
    easy/cheap to come by in much of the US, but in many countries it is
    inexpensive and common. Can be spread on plain biscuits (cookies),
    bread, toast, pancakes, or just eaten from the jar. There are other
    brands that produce a similar product, but Nutella seems to the best
    known.

    OKRA - a fruit of a plant of the cotton family, native to Africa.
    Appears as "bindi" or "bhindi" in Indian cooking, and as "bamiya" or
    similar in the Middle East. Also widely used in the south of the USA,
    in such dishes as gumbo. Also called "ladies' fingers".

    ORZO (OHR-ZOH) - In Italian this means "barley," but it's actually a
    tiny, rice-shaped pasta, slightly smaller than a pine nut.

    PANKO (PAHN-KOH) - Bread crumbs used in Japanese cooking for coating
    fried foods. They're coarser than those normally used in the United
    States and create a deliciously crunchy crust on foods.

    PAVLOVA - A dessert (invented in NZ, not Australia :-) The main
    ingredients are sugar and egg white. A pavlova has crisp meringue
    outside and soft marshmallow inside, and has approximately the
    dimensions of a deep dessert cake. Commonly pavlovas are topped with
    whipped cream and fresh fruit, especially kiwi fruit, passion fruit or
    strawberries.

    PAWPAW - Also called 'papaw'. Papaya, also persimmons in some places,
    or even a third fruit, Asimina triloba. It's best to check with the
    recipe author. The papaya is a tropical fruit; the persimmon is from
    warm temperate areas; and Asimina triloba from cooler temperate areas.

    PERIWINKLES - These small relatives of the whelk are "Littorina
    littorea". Popular in Europe but not in US. Northern (New England)
    "winkles" are a different species from those found in the Gulf of
    Mexico.

    POLENTA - same as cornmeal, also, a thick porridge made from cornmeal
    (also known as 'cornmeal mush', 'mamaliga')

    PORTOBELLO - see Cremini

    POSOLE (POH-SOH-LEH) - The dried hominy that is used to make a thick,
    hearty soup consisting of pork, garlic and dried chilies. The stew is
    named for the dried hominy.

    POUTINE - French fries with cheese curds and gravy.

    POWDERED SUGAR - see section 1.5

    PRIME RIB - In the USA, a popular term referring to a standing rib roast
    of beef. "Prime" in the term refers to one of the primal cuts of beef
    and not, as is often incorrectly assumed, to the USDA grade of beef.
    This usage precedes the establishment of the US beef grading standards,
    which explains the confusion. This is explicitly acknowledged by the
    USDA in its publications. The USDA technical name for the cut is "beef
    rib roast."

    RADICCHIO (rah-DEE-kee-oh) - This red-leafed Italian chicory is most
    often used in salads.

    RAPESEED OIL - Neutral-tasting oil made from seeds of Brassica napus.
    Also called rape oil and canola oil.

    RHUBARB - Rhubarb should be cooked because cooking inhibits or destroys
    the oxalic acid it contains. The oxalic acid in raw rhubarb or in
    rhubarb leaves is toxic.

    RISO (REE-SOH) - In Italian this means "rice", but also rice-shaped
    pasta similar to orzo.

    ROCK MELON - see Melon

    ROCKY MOUNTAIN OYSTERS - Lamb or cattle testicles, breaded and deep
    fried (like oysters, I guess).

    SAMBAL ULEK (SAMBAL OELEK) - A paste made by crushing red chillies with
    a little salt. Can be made by crushing chopped de-seeded chillies in a
    mortar with salt, or purchased at some delicatessens or Asian food
    stores.

    SANTEN/COCONUT MILK - Can be bought in cans or in powdered form, or made
    as follows: To 2.5 cups boiling water add the grated flesh of one
    coconut (or 4 cups desiccated coconut). Leave to stand 30 minutes,
    squeeze coconut and strain. Use within 24 hours. Known as narial ka
    dooth in India, santen in Indonesia and Malaysia.

    SCALLION - Variety of onion with small bulbs, long stiff green leaves.
    Usually eaten raw. Also called spring onion, green onion.

    SCOTCH BONNET PEPPER - Capsicum tetragonum. Similar to Habañero
    Pepper.

    SCRAPPLE - Scrapple is boiled, ground leftover pieces of pig, together
    with cornmeal and spices. Good scrapple, particularly served with a
    spicy tomato catsup, is food for the gods. Bad scrapple, especially
    with too little cornmeal, with too much grease, or undercooked, is an
    abomination in the eyes of the horde.

    SCUNGILLI - Also a Mollusc Gastropod - "Buccinidae" - found in more
    temperate waters than conch, with a darker meat and stronger flavour,
    perhaps less "sweet". This is more properly known as "whelk". These
    are generally removed from their shell and sold already steamed and
    ready to eat. The meat is kind of a circular meat, about 1 to 2 inches
    in diameter, perhaps 10 to 20 of these in a pound.

    SELTZER - Plain soda water (from Selters water, the naturally effervescent
    mineral water of Germany).

    SHALLOTS - Small pointed members of the onion family that grow in
    clusters something like garlic and have a mild, onion-y taste. Not the
    same as green/spring onion.

    SHIRO GOMA (shee-roh GOH-mah) - Japanese for "sesame seed." This
    version is the hulled white sesame seed used in many Asian recipes, like
    stir-fry.

    SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS (SHEE-TAH-KAY) - Also called Chinese black mushrooms
    and forest mushrooms, they have a meaty flesh with a full-bodied woodsy
    flavour.

    SINGLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    SPANISH ONION - see Bermuda Onion

    SPRING ONION - see Scallion

    SQUASH - a family of vegetables. All but two have a thick, hard,
    usually inedible rind, rich-tasting meat, and lots of seeds. There are
    also things called summer squashes, which have edible rinds, milder
    meats, and usually fewer seeds. An example of this type is the
    Zucchini.

    SWEDE - US rutabaga

    SWEETBREADS - According to the OED, sweetbread is "the pancreas or
    the thymus gland, of an animal, esp. as used for food (distinguished
    respectively as _heart_, _stomach_, or _belly_ sweetbread and _throat_,
    _gullet_, or _neck_ sweetbread): esteemed a delicacy." Sweetbreads
    generally come from young animals, usually calves or lambs, although
    pigs' can also be used. Older animals' thymus and pancreas are
    significantly smaller and tend to be much stronger in flavour.

    SWEETMEATS - A sweetmeat, according to the OED, is a "small shaped
    piece of confectionary usu. consisting chiefly of sugar or chocolate
    with flavouring or filling, or of fruit preserved in sugar."

    TAHINI (TAH-HEE-NEE) - Used in Middle Eastern cooking, it is a thick
    paste made of ground sesame seed that concentrates the sesame seed
    flavour.

    TAMARI - Tamari is a type of soy sauce, usually used in Japanese food.
    You can easily substitute with Chinese Light Soy or regular Japanese soy
    sauce.

    TANGELO - Citrus fruit cross of a tangerine and a pomelo. Larger than a
    mandarin and a little smaller than an average-size orange. Skin colour
    is a bright tangerine and they mature during the late mandarin season.
    Mandarins, Tangerines or Oranges may be used instead.

    TERASI - A kind of pungent shrimp paste, used in very small quantities.
    May be crushed with spices, grilled or fried before adding to other
    ingredients. Also known as balachan/blacan (Malaysia), kapi (Thailand)
    and ngapi (Burma).

    TOMATO SAUCE - in UK/NZ/Australia, a homogeneous dark red sauce
    containing (typically) tomatoes, sugar, salt, acid, spices, sometimes
    (blech) apple - much the same thing as US tomato ketchup. In the US,
    France, Belgium a more heterogeneous concoction, served in and on foods
    such as pasta.

    TRADITIONAL BALSAMIC VINEGAR (Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale) - see also
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    Made in Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy) from white Trebbiano must that
    is cooked for several hours over a direct flame in an open vessel
    until it reaches a concentration averaging at around 50%. It is then
    aged in barrels until it is dark in colour and pungently sweet. The
    barrels need to be from at least 3 different woods including cherry,
    oak, chestnut tree, ash tree and mulberry tree. Minimum ageing is 12
    years. Frequently used in salad dressings or marinades. "Aceto
    balsamico tradizionale" from both Modena and Reggio Emilia are
    DOP (Protected Origin Denomination) products under Italian and European
    laws. Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale can be sold only in the particular
    0.1-liter flasks labelled by the respective Consortium (Modena or Reggio
    Emilia), and the prices vary from about 30 euros for the lower quality
    to over 100 euros for the higher quality.

    TWIGLETS - A stick-shaped cracker-textured snack. Taste mostly of yeast
    extract, but also contain cheese as an ingredient. Have 4 calories each
    and 11.4 g fat per 100 g.

    UDON (OO-DOHN) - A thick Japanese noodle similar to spaghetti and used
    in soups, salads and Asian noodle recipes.

    UNSALTED BUTTER - What it says, butter without the 1.5 - 2% added salt
    that 'normal' butter has. Often recommended for cooking. Many people
    prefer the taste of unsalted butter. In areas with high quality dairy
    products the use of unsalted butter where it is called for may not be so
    important, since the salt is not so likely to be covering the taste of a
    low-quality product. In many stores it may be kept in the freezer
    section rather than refrigerator.

    VEGEMITE/MARMITE - Not the same thing, but similar enough to not deserve
    separate entries. A thick brown paste made mostly from yeast extract,
    most commonly spread thinly on toast or sandwiches. The taste is mostly
    salt plus yeast. Despite the occasional rumour, neither contains any
    meat.

    Wasabi (WAH-SAH-BEE) - The Japanese version of horseradish comes from
    the root of an Asian plant especially used as a condiment with sushi.
    Can be purchased in powder form (reconstitute with water) or in tube (in
    paste form).

    WAX BEAN - a yellow variety of the green bean. Also called snap bean or
    string bean.

    WHIPPING CREAM - in US, cream with at least 30% butterfat

    ZUCCHINI - A long, green squash that looks something like a cucumber.
    Also known as vegetable marrow, courgette.

    ----------------------------------------
    4 Cooking Methods

    If you would like to contribute a paragraph for one of these methods, or
    add another method, please send it to me.

    baking
    barbecuing
    basting
    boiling
    coddling
    grilling
    simmering

    ----------------------------------------
    4.1 Poaching (thank you to Rodger Whitlock)

    Poaching is cooking by simmering in water. It is distinguished from
    "boiling" in that the water temperature is kept slightly below the
    boiling point. It is distinguished from "simmering" in that poaching
    applies to solid items poached in water later discarded, whereas
    simmering applies to the cooking of watery foods such as sauces,
    puddings, soups, and stews. The most common poached foodstuff is the
    egg. However, other items, for example boneless chicken breasts and
    some fish, can be poached.

    There are great differences of opinion about the proper method of
    poaching an egg, in particular how to avoid the formation of long
    streamers of egg white. This writer knows of three major variants:

    1. using a special egg poaching pan
    2. the "whirlpool" method
    3. the "acidulation" method

    This writer uses the "acidulation" method: a large shallow pan is filled
    with water and brought to boiling. It is removed from the heat, and a
    small amount (5-10 ml) of apple cider vinegar is added to the water.
    When the water is absolutely still, Each egg is cracked into a cup and
    very slowly and gently poured into the hot water. The heat is turned
    down to a low simmer setting, the pan returned to the stove and covered,
    and the eggs allowed to slowly cook until done to taste. This writer
    prefers poached eggs to have a completely set white and yolks set on the
    outside but still liquid at the centre.

    Eggs poached this way do not taste vinegary. Apple cider vinegar gives
    the poached eggs a very delicate hint of sweetness.

    ----------------------------------------
    4.2 Frying

    Frying is plunging a food into a bath of hot fat or oil. It involves
    'sealing and browning'. It is important to use fat or oil heated to a
    temperature that is high, but not so high that the fat begins to break
    up or decompose. Generally, the temperature should not exceed about
    180°C/360°F. A good rule of thumb is to wait until the fat begins to
    smoke. One should only use pieces of food small enough for the heat to
    penetrate to the centre fairly rapidly. Another rule to remember is to
    use food that has been carefully dried. If one uses food that is
    difficult to get dry well enough, one should dip it into flour, or
    breadcrumbs, or fritter batter, or pastry.

    A very popular foodstuff to deep-fry is the potato. For potato chips
    (French-fried potatoes), heat the fat to about 180-190°C/360-380°F.
    Potato chips are washed in cold water and carefully dried in a cloth and
    then plunged into the hot fat for 5-6 minutes. The potatoes are then
    lifted from the fat and tested for consistency. They should be soft
    enough to squash between one's fingers. The fat should be allowed to
    get back to 180-190°C/360-380°F and the potatoes put back into the fat
    again, for a couple of minutes. They will become crisp and golden brown.

    For safety reasons, it is recommended to use a deep pan, to fill it to
    no more than 1/3 and to avoid crowding it. If a fire occurs, dump in
    baking soda and cover the pan with a lid.

    ----------------------------------------
    4.3 Sautéing (and deglazing)

    'Sauté' is the past participle of the French verb sauter (to jump, hence
    to fry in shallow fat, while tossing, i.e. making to jump). Sautéing is
    thus a method of briefly cooking food in a shallow pan or skillet in a
    small amount of hot fat or liquid over direct heat. One of the primary
    cooking techniques, it is similar to grilling and roasting in that it
    consists of the quick sealing and browning of small pieces of food.
    This method is most often used for making dishes in savoury sauces,
    sautéing being just a stage in the preparation of the dish, but also as
    an end in itself, as in sautéed potatoes or mushrooms. To be
    successful, sautéing should be done at the last minute. The size of the
    sauté pan should correspond with the quantity of food to be cooked. The
    pan should be large enough to accommodate food without crowding,
    otherwise the food steams. It shouldn't be *too* large, though,
    because, if the base of the pan is not entirely covered with the food to
    be sautéed, the fat will start to burn in the empty spaces between the
    food pieces, and give a bitter taste to the sauce (if such is going to
    be made).

    If the food is going to be served with a sauce made with the food's own
    juices, sautéing would be followed by the next step - deglazing the pan
    and making a sauce. After the food is seasoned and cooked to the
    desired degree, the pieces are taken out of the pan and kept warm. The
    pan can now be deglazed, using some sort of liquid specified in the
    recipe, typically wine, brandy or vinegar. The liquid is brought to the
    boil to loosen and dissolve the caramelised juices stuck to the bottom
    of the pan. Some sort of hot stock can now be added and reduced by
    half or so. The pan is then taken from the heat, and butter or cream
    may be added and blended into the sauce. The sauce is then added to the
    food, which should never be cooked in the deglazing liquid (it would
    turn it into a ragoût).

    ----------------------------------------
    4.4 Broiling

    In British English, 'broiling' is the same thing as 'grilling'. In the
    USA, 'broiling' refers to grilling something *under* a direct heat
    source (as provided as an option in a typical electric oven, for
    example), as distinct from cooking it above such a source in grilling
    proper, especially if it happens outdoors on a suitable contraption.

    ----------------------------------------
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)

    Caramelising is browning of sugars. Heating food containing sugars
    beyond a certain temperature (about 150°C (300°F) breaks sugars down in
    a large number of compounds which give caramelised food its complexity
    of flavour. To start caramelising, the water in the food has to
    evaporate, to enable the food to be able reach the requisite temperature
    for the sugars to start browning.

    Caramelising onions is an example. Heat a pan over medium-low heat, and
    add about 3 tablespoons of fat (say, a mixture of vegetable oil and
    butter). When the fat has melted, add 1 1/2 pounds of sliced onions
    (sliced about 1/4 inch thick or less) and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Cook over
    the low heat, covered, for 10 minutes (the onions are "sweating" at this
    point, which means they are giving off moisture). Then uncover and
    raise heat to medium high. Cook for 20 or 25 minutes more, stirring
    every now and then. At this point, you are reducing the moisture in the
    onions and the natural sugar in them is going to brown them. The onions
    will be dark brown and will have caramelised in the pan (meaning they
    will be sweet to the taste).

    ----------------------------------------
    4.6 Braising

    Braising is cooking 'by exchange', i.e. food (typically meat, but also
    fish or vegetables) is first browned all over in a little fat (except
    fish... see below), in a tightly sealed pot, immersed to half its depth
    in liquid and cooked on top of the stove or in the oven, long, slowly,
    and evenly, tenderizing it and, with the help of the juices that run
    out, adding flavour to the resulting sauce.

    Fish is typically braised differently, namely by laying in a buttered
    dish, covered over with chopped shallots or onions, immersed to half its
    depth in a mixture of wine and fish stock, and then cooked in the oven,
    covered with aluminium foil or greaseproof paper.

    ----------------------------------------
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol

    A 1990 study by E. Augustin et al. found evidence that alcoholic
    beverages retain from 5 percent to as much as 85 percent of alcohol
    after cooking. This study has been used in the following table
    published by USDA (edited for readability).


    COOKING METHOD ALCOHOL RETAINED (%)

    No heat, stored overnight 70
    Stirred into hot liquid 85
    Flamed 75
    Stirred in, then baked or simmered for:
    15 min 40
    30 min 35
    1 hr 25
    1.5 hr 20
    2 hr 10
    2.5 hr 5
    Not stirred in, baked for: 25 min 45

    ----------------------------------------
    4.8 Roasting

    Roasting is cooking food by exposing it to dry heat. In this, it is
    similar to baking and grilling/broiling. It differs from the former in
    that, first, roasting can take place not just in the oven, but also in
    the open, i.e. directly over the fire or smouldering coals; and, second,
    in that the term 'roasting' is much more often applied to meat and
    poultry than to other food, though fish and even vegetables can be
    roasted, too. It differs from the latter in that roasting is a method
    much better suited for thicker cuts of meat or other food, whereas the
    initial searing is followed by cooking at, sometimes, slightly lower
    temperatures and, more importantly, by frequent basting, typically with
    the drippings from the roast.

    Like some other methods, roasting is a way of cooking by 'sealing and
    browning'. The food is lightly coated or painted with fat, such as
    butter, oil, or a mixture of the two, and exposed to a very high heat,
    thus searing the surface, coagulating and caramelising it. When
    grilling a relatively small piece of food, this would be almost the end
    of the cooking process, but with a thicker roasting piece, the inside
    would still be raw at this stage. So, one lowers the heat a bit and
    continues to cook, basting the roast frequently and turning it
    occasionally, or even rotating it continuously if the food happens to be
    roasted on a spit over an open fire.

    Since it is dry heat which is employed in roasting, it is important to
    never put the lid on, or cover the roasting food, as otherwise the food
    will be steaming, not roasting. Occasionally, though, it may become
    necessary to shield certain parts of the roast with foil to prevent
    overcooking, or to cover (bard) certain drier meats or game with strips
    of bacon or other fat, which is removed towards the end of cooking to
    allow the meat to brown.

    For rare meat, a rule of thumb is to roast it about 30 minutes for the
    first pound and 13 to 15 minutes for each additional pound.

    If a roasting pan has been used, cooking juices will have collected in
    the bottom. They can be deglazed with a little liquid, such as wine or
    water, to form a delicious gravy which can be poured over the roast or
    served separately, or used to prepare a more elaborate sauce.

    ----------------------------------------
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment

    This section is designed to contain small articles people have put
    together on various topics pertaining to cooking equipment.

    ----------------------------------------
    5.1 Woks (thank you to Steve Hammond (and for a small correction to
    Bill Boylan))

    First of all, the best wok is one made of cold-rolled steel. Most of
    them are round-bottomed and come with a ring to support it over the
    burner. The support ring with the narrower diameter side up is used for
    gas stoves and the larger diameter side up is used on electric stoves.
    This seems to keep it the right distance from the burner.

    Electric woks can be used for table-side cooking but they do not seem
    practical for real cooking. With their thermostat, they go on and off,
    on and off... the idea is to get the wok hot and keep it hot. Electric
    woks never seem to get hot enough and stay hot for most uses.

    A wok right out of the box will have a coating of machine oil to prevent
    it from rusting. Wash the wok in hot water with soap. This is the LAST
    time you should ever use soap in your wok. Next, it's a good idea to
    boil some water in your new wok for 15-20 minutes to get it really
    clean.

    Seasoning a brand new wok involves heating the wok with some oil in it,
    letting it cool, and repeating the procedure, say, three times. Heat
    the wok over high heat, then add a couple tablespoons of peanut oil and
    spread it around with a paper towel, being careful not to burn yourself.
    Stop when the oil begins to smoke, and let it cool. Add more oil if
    needed, and repeat a couple of times.

    For actual cooking, put your wok over the burner on high for a few
    minutes before cooking. To see if it is ready to cook in, put a few
    drops of water into the wok and they should dance around and evaporate
    almost immediately. Have *all* the food you need to cook, chopped and
    ready. Next, add some peanut oil and swirl around to coat the bottom.
    The oil will start to smoke a little. Immediately start adding the
    ingredients for the meal you are cooking.

    Clean the wok with hot water and some form of scrubbing tool. The
    bamboo things they sometimes include actually work or one can use a
    nylon scrubbing pad (no brillo, SOS, or equivalent). After the wok is
    cleaned, put it back on the burner for a few minutes to heat it up and
    evaporate any moisture. Then, add a little oil to it and rub it around
    with a paper towel to keep it shiny and from rusting with any moisture
    it may attract in between uses.

    Another thing, when you are done cooking in the wok, put some water in
    it to soak while you eat. Cleanup takes just a few work with a nylon
    scrubbing pad and some hot water.

    Taking good care of your cookware only requires a few minutes of time
    and makes it much easier to use and cleanup. Food doesn't stick to a
    well seasoned wok. If it starts to stick, scrub it well with something
    like an S.O.S. pad and re-season.

    ----------------------------------------
    5.2 Cast Iron (thank you to Tom Rankin)

    Summary:
    Make sure your cast iron is clean down to bare metal.
    Coat with fat, heat, repeat.
    Look after by never washing in soapy water and scrubbing as little as
    possible.

    Details:

    Initial cleaning: get off all the packaging oil, burnt food or
    whatever the pan has on it. Some suggestions for achieving this are
    - Wash in hot soapy water, dry thoroughly
    - Boil undiluted white vinegar in the pan for while
    - Commercial beadblasting (not sandblasting)
    - Steel wool
    - Hot embers
    - Kosher salt baked in the pan at 500°F (260°C) for 4 hours and
    scraped out again
    - Put in self-cleaning oven and turn on clean cycle

    Fats to use: a solid vegetable fat, or lard. Oil is not as suitable.

    Seasoning process: Wipe pot inside and out with melted fat. Do the lid
    too (if it's cast iron). At this point, authorities seem to diverge.
    The common theme is "get it hot and keep it hot for considerably more
    than an hour" (optionally followed by "re-coat it with fat during the
    process"). Two hours at 350°F (175°C), re-wiping with fat every
    30 minutes, seems sensible.

    When this has been done, the seasoning process has been begun but not
    yet completed. The first few times the pan is used, it should be for
    fairly fatty foods. Fried eggs rather than tomato soup, for example.

    Each time the pan is used, rinse with hot water and scrub if necessary.
    Don't scour or use detergent - otherwise you will need to re-season.
    Some people coat their cast iron very lightly with oil after washing,
    then wipe out after an initial heating next time they use it.

    ----------------------------------------
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking

    ----------------------------------------
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking (thank you to Max Hauser)

    rec.food.cooking began as net.cooks, launched by friend and fellow food
    fanatic Steve Upstill in Berkeley in January 1982 with a posting on
    pragmatic pasta sauces, something Steve was then often cooking,
    including at my place. We were all cranking out a lot of fresh ribbon
    pasta with Atlas 150 (150mm) roller/cutter machines and we needed things
    to do with it. net.cooks became rec.food.cooking in the general Great
    Renaming (late 1986). Current Google archives show Steve's original
    29-Jan-82 posting, and also his 31-Jan-82 net.general announcement of
    net.cooks, "All about food, cooking, cookbooks, recipes and other
    alimentary effluvia." That was the "charter" of this newsgroup.
    (Discussions by the way using the specific language of newsgroup
    "charter" on net.cooks or rec.food.cooking don't appear until five years
    later in 1987, an exchange between Terry Sterkel, me, and Spafford,
    referring anyway to a different newsgroup.) Posted statistics also
    showed that net.cooks became popular immediately, one of the most
    popular newsgroups at the time. After the 1986 renaming, a Gene
    Spafford active-newsgroups list included rec.food.cooking with summary
    "Food, cooking, cookbooks, and recipes." Steve Upstill continued to
    contribute occasionally, and also to work on recipe-formatting software.
    I recall him commercializing a typesetting macro package ("-MU"), and
    recipe software for Mac platforms.

    ----------------------------------------
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking

    - There have been quite a few rec.food.cooking cook-ins all over the
    USA, as well as a small one in Germany. The first one was hosted by
    Anne Bourget in Sacramento, California, in 1994.

    - Early in 1997, a rec.food.cooking T-shirt was produced, with the
    proceeds donated to charity. Some 220 T-shirts were sold to rfc'ers.

    - In 2002-3, a rec.food.cooking Cook.Book was published, also with the
    proceeds donated to charity (City Harvest, a NYC affiliate of Second
    Harvest) to help the victims of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. There were
    two printings, one late in 2002, the other early in 2003, and a total of
    about 740 copies were sold, also to rfc'ers.


    ----------------------------------------
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx? (much of this section was copied
    verbatim from the rec.food.cooking MiniFAQ that the
    invaluable Amy Gale used to post - thank you, Amy)

    This section tries to cover a few of the most commonly confusing
    topics that may come up on the newsgroup.

    aluminium : has not been linked to Alzheimer's Disease in a
    reproducible experiment.

    Elbonia : a mythical country (probably in Eastern Europe). Comes
    from Scott Adams' "Dilbert", syndicated in newspapers and
    available at http://www.unitedmedia.com/comics/dilbert/

    Ingrid : Anne Bourget's Volvo, used for flattening chicken breasts.
    Now deceased, but the memory lives on.

    j/nghlm : a joke ingredient. Spelling varies.

    WWT : (Weekend With Tammy). Once upon a time, a long-time rfc
    poster named Tammy spent a weekend with another long-time
    poster who posted a long article describing their mainly
    food-related adventures. Some people took exception to
    that posting, complaining about the lack of recipes (which
    were posted separately). Many people now use the WWT
    acronym in the subject header to indicate a posting of
    similar nature.

    ObFood : 'obligatory food reference'. An old rfc tradition.
    Many people hold that, whenever one happens to post off
    topic, one is supposed to add something that has to do
    with food, ideally something that is actually interesting
    and/or useful.

    ----------------------------------------
    7 This has come up once too often....

    This list is a (futile?) attempt to keep certain well-worn subjects from
    coming up yet again. Further suggestions always welcome.

    The $250 cookie recipe

    This recipe comes up often, usually here but also on other newsgroups
    (where it is even less appropriate). The story goes that a woman had a
    cookie at [usually Mrs. Field's or Neiman Marcus' cafe], and liked it
    so much she wanted the recipe. The clerk said "It will cost you
    two-fifty"; the woman thought that meant $2.50 and was shocked to find
    it meant $250. She is now spreading it to get revenge, since it was not
    returnable.

    There are a number of holes in the story, and no one has ever brought
    forth any evidence that it really happened. (If you want to argue that
    you know someone who knows someone who this really happened to, take it
    over to alt.folklore.urban, where they will proceed to have you for
    breakfast if you have no evidence.) More importantly, it has been
    posted more than enough times by now. Some people have tried the recipe
    and pronounced it good, but it ain't Mrs. Field's. If you would like
    the recipe, ask for someone to mail it to you.

    It has been pointed out to me that the recipe is in the standard source
    distribution for GNU Emacs and XEmacs. If your site has that source,
    look in the "etc" directory for a file named COOKIES.

    Most importantly, please DO NOT post it any more. There is also a Mrs
    Fields cookbook, published by Time-Life. This has recipes, but not the
    exact ones for the ones sold in the stores, as those recipes are not
    well suited to home baking.

    ----------------------------------------
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites

    ----------------------------------------
    8.1 Recipe archives

    There are hundreds, if not thousands, of recipe archives on the net.
    Here are some of the more popular and larger ones.

    * http://recipes.alastra.com/
    The official rec.food.recipes archive, maintained by Stephanie da
    Silva.

    * http://www.lysator.liu.se/etexts/recept/us/main.html
    Usenet Cookbook, a collection of old alt.gourmand recipes.

    * http://www.recipesource.com/
    SOAR - Searchable Online Archive of Recipes.

    * http://www.ichef.com/ichef-recipes/

    * http://www.cs.cmu.edu/%7Emjw/recipes/
    Amy Gale's recipe archives.

    * http://recipes.wenzel.net/
    RecipeLand.com's archive with 25000+ recipes.

    * http://www.astray.com/recipes/
    A searchable database of 76,000+ recipes, maintained by Leon
    Brocard.

    * http://www.recipecenter.com
    100,000+ recipes.

    * http://allrecipes.com/
    A large, searchable recipe archive.

    * http://home.uni-one.nl/the-cooking-page/
    The Cooking Page. Numerous recipe links classified by language
    (English, French, German, Dutch), by food course, and by cuisine.

    * http://www.oingo.com/topic/14/14336.html
    A well designed and functional searchable database of thousands of
    food and recipe links.

    * http://moas.atlantia.sca.org/topics/cook.htm
    Ancient and medieval recipes, and cooking and food links.

    * http://www.ajlc.waterloo.on.ca/Recipes/index.html
    A very large, meticulous index of recipes, with a search engine.

    * http://www.cdkitchen.com/
    A comprehensive cooking Web site with over 200,000 recipes,
    including a rec.food.recipes archive. By Valerie Whitmore.

    * http://www.lingualearn.co.uk/food.htm
    A collection of links to recipes, etc. of varius countries.

    * "http://www.godecookery.com/goderec/goderec.htm
    A Boke of Gode Cookery. A collection of Medieval recipes by James
    Matterer.

    * Copycat recipes or links to them are often requested on rfc. Two of
    the better known sites with such recipes are
    http://www.copykat.com/asp/recipes.asp
    and
    http://www.topsecretrecipes.com/.

    ----------------------------------------
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites

    * http://www.epicurious.com/
    A general food site with a dictionary (THE FOOD LOVER'S COMPANION,
    by Sharon Tyler Herbst), recipes from well-known food magazines,
    etc.

    * http://www.cyber-kitchen.com/
    Mimi's Cyber Kitchen, a general food site maintained by Mimi
    Hiller.

    * http://www-ang.kfunigraz.ac.at/~katzer/engl/index.html
    Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages, a Web spice encyclopedia, by Gernot
    Katzer.

    * http://www.foodsubs.com/ (and numerous mirrors)
    The Cook's Thesaurus. By Lori Alden. Suggests substitutions for
    thousands of cooking ingredients.

    * http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/...2/glossary.htm
    An A-Z glossary of Indian spices and cooking terms.

    * http://www.EuropeanCuisines.com/
    and
    http://www.owlsprings.com/the_balti_page/
    "European Cuisines" and "The Balti Page".
    By Peter Morwood & Diane Duane.

    * http://www.virtualquincy.com/quincy/...n/recipes.html
    Directory listing of over 375 recipe and cooking websites.

    * http://www.reluctantgourmet.com/
    Cooking guide for beginner cooks.

    * http://labsoftware.com/cookbook/default.htm
    "Cooking for Graduate Students and and other beginning Kitchen
    Dwellers".

    * http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/afa_faq.html
    Links to sites related to Asian food and cooking, as posted
    regularly to alt.food.asian by blacksalt.

    * http://www.whatscookingamerica.net/G...saryIndex2.htm
    Linda's Culinary Dictionary. By Linda Stradley. A listing and
    history of cooking, food, and beverage terms.

    * http://www.todine.net/dictionary.html
    Italian-English-French-Spanish-German Gastronomical Dictionary.

    * http://www.xs4all.nl/~margjos/
    English-French-German-Danish-Dutch food dictionary. By Jos and
    Marg Sparreboom.

    * http://www.theepicentre.com/glossary.html
    A glossary of spices, etc.

    * http://www.soupsong.com/ifoodta.html
    "Food tales, or everything you always wanted to know about the
    migration and lore of food."

    * http://www.breadworld.com/canada/tip...y/glossary.asp
    A glossary of baking terms maintained by Fleischmann's Yeast, a
    commercial entity.

    * http://www.mhr-viandes.com/en/docu/docu/d9000003.htm
    Multilingual meat and poultry glossaries.

    * http://www.aboutproduce.com/
    Recipes, nutrition info, selection tips for vegetables, fruits, nuts
    and herbs. By the Produce Marketing Association.

    * http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~frf/rfe0.html
    Comprehensive, illustrated fish encylopaedia. An FDA resource.

    * http://navigator.tufts.edu/
    Tufts University Nutrition Navigator. Reviews and rating of
    nutrition information Web sites.

    * http://food.oregonstate.edu/glossary/all.html
    Science of Foods Glossary.

    * http://www.cahe.nmsu.edu/pubs/_e/e-131.pdf
    In A Pinch - Ingredient Substitution, a PDF file.

    * http://www.thousandeggs.com/cookbooks.html
    Links to old culinary & brewing documents online, by Cindy Renfrow.

    * http://www.globalgourmet.com/food/egg/fdnews.html
    A humongous list of culinary newsletters, magazines and journals.

    * http://www.azcentral.com/home/cooking101/
    Cooking 101.

    * http://www.gortons.com/cookbook/
    Gorton's fisherman's cookbook and fish glossary.

    * http://www.pipeline.com/~rosskat/
    A wealth of culinary information, resources, recipes, etc. on a
    rather disorganised site.

    * http://members.aol.com/Jwmike101/home.html
    Culinary resource desk. Lots of useful links.

    * http://www.psgrill.net/Encyclopedia/ENCYCLOPEDIA.html
    Large, useful food dictionary (but with some annoying
    mistranslations and misspellings).

    * http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/glossary/
    BBC's food glossary.

    * http://www.calacademy.org/research/a...ology/utensil/
    The History of Eating Utensils.

    * http://www.astaspice.org/history/history_main.htm
    ASTA's World of Spice - The history of the Spice Trade. By The
    American Spice Trade Association.

    * http://www.usmef.org/TradeLibrary/In...MeatManual.asp
    International Meat Manual. Corn-fed beef, grass-fed beef, veal,
    pork and lamb. In English, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin Chinese and
    Spanish. By the U.S. Meat Export Federation.

    * http://www.carnegielibrary.org/subject/food/
    Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh -- comprehensive Food and Cooking
    resource guide

    * http://www.bakingbusiness.com/refbook.asp
    The Encyclopedia of Baking offers reference, formulations and
    troubleshooting for common baking ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists

    ----------------------------------------
    9.1 rec.food.cooking

    a.k.a. us: A group for the discussion of cooking in general. Recipes
    and requests for recipes are welcome here, as are discussions of cooking
    techniques, equipment, etc. In short, if it has to do with cooking, it
    probably belongs here - though that doesn't mean it doesn't belong
    somewhere else, too!

    ----------------------------------------
    9.2 rec.food.recipes

    A moderated newsgroup for recipes and requests for recipes. Each week a
    FAQ explains how to post recipes or requests. The lead moderator is
    Patricia D. Hill, <[email protected]>.
    The rfr moderators' software automatically sets followups to rfc.
    The reason is, no discussion is allowed in rfr - only recipes or
    requests for same. Since some people might wish to publicly discuss
    posted recipes notwithstanding, followups to rfc serve a useful purpose.

    ----------------------------------------
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.drink.beer, rec.food.drink.tea,
    rec.food.restaurants, rec.food.drink.coffee
    rec.food.sourdough, rec.food.historic

    Pretty self-explanatory.

    ----------------------------------------
    9.4 rec.food.veg

    About vegetarianism. It also has its own FAQ list, with questions about
    the myths and truths of the vegetarian diet, information on where to get
    "cruelty-free" products, etc.

    ----------------------------------------
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking

    A moderated version of rec.food.veg

    ----------------------------------------
    9.6 rec.food.preserving

    "Rec.food.preserving is a newsgroup devoted to the discussion of
    recipes, equipment, and techniques of food preservation. Current food
    preservation techniques that rightly should be discussed in this forum
    include canning, freezing, dehydration, pickling, smoking, salting,
    distilling, and potting. Foodstuffs are defined as produce (both fruits
    and vegetables), meat, fish, dairy products, culinary and medicinal
    herbs. Discussions should be limited to home-grown or home-preserved
    foods." (From the rec.food.preserving FAQ)

    ----------------------------------------
    9.7 also...

    rec.crafts.winemaking
    rec.crafts.brewing
    alt.food
    alt.food.wine
    alt.coffee
    alt.food.asian
    alt.food.fat-free
    alt.food.low-fat
    alt.bacchus
    alt.food.mcdonalds (an oxymoron if ever I heard one)
    alt.food.coca-cola (mmmm....coca cola...)
    alt.food.chocolate
    alt.food.taco.bell
    alt.creative-cook
    alt.creative-cooking
    alt.cooking-chat
    alt.food.barbecue
    alt.2eggs.sausage.beans.tomatoes.2toast.largetea.c heerslove
    alt.food.mexican-cooking
    alt.food.sushi

    ----------------------------------------
    9.8 mailing lists

    A very popular mailing list is

    Chile-Heads

    Purpose: The Chile-Heads list is intended to provide a forum
    for discussion of matters relating to chile peppers; including,
    but not limited to:

    o Growing peppers
    o Seed and plant sources
    o Exchanges of seeds/plants/pods/etc.
    o Exotic varieties
    o Storing and preserving chiles
    o Recipes using chiles
    o Other related posts

    http://globalgarden.com/Chile-Heads/list_info.phtml

    How to Subscribe to the Chile-Heads Mailing List
    All messages posted to the list are emailed immediately to
    everyone on the list.
    To subscribe to the Chile-Heads Mailing List, send email to
    [email protected]
    and in the body of the message, put
    SUBSCRIBE

    How to Subscribe to the Chile-Heads Digest Mailing List
    The digest will save all email messages posted to the list for
    the day and send in one email message.
    To subscribe to the Chile-Heads Digest Mailing List, send email to
    [email protected]
    and in the body of the message, put
    SUBSCRIBE

    Back issues are available for anonymous FTP from
    ftp.globalgarden.com, in pub/Chile-Heads/digest/vNN.nMMM
    (where "NN" is the volume number, and "MMM" is the issue number).

    How to Unsubscribe to the Chile-Heads Mailing List or Digest
    Mailing List
    To unsubscribe send email to [email protected]
    or [email protected]
    (depending on which version of the list you are subscribed to)
    with the body of the message containing:
    UNSUBSCRIBE


    Another popular mailing list is

    Bread-Bakers

    The bread-bakers digest and daily-bread mailing lists are for the
    free exchange of recipes and information related to any and all
    aspects of bread baking, by hand or by machine.
    http://www.bread-bakers.com/

    To join the bread-bakers mailing list, send mail to
    [email protected] In the body of the
    message, place, in lower case with no indentation, the single word:

    subscribe

    This will subscribe you at the address that your message is sent
    from. This is almost certainly your correct address. Bestserv will
    send you a message asking you to confirm your subscription request.
    You must reply to the message changing the word REJECT in the
    subject to ACCEPT. You will get a confirmation when your
    subscription has been accepted. If you have problems subscribing,
    please write to us at [email protected]
    and we will assist you.

    ----------------------------------------
    10 Other culinary FAQs (thank you to Damsel in dis Dress)

    ----------------------------------------
    10.1 Foods

    * ftp://ftp.michvhf.com/pub/rec.food.baking/FAQ
    (rec.food.baking FAQ, by B. Keith Ryder)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/food/sourdo.../preamble.html
    (rec.food.sourdough FAQ, maintained by Darrell Greenwood)

    * http://members.tripod.com/~BayGourmet/index2.html#faq
    (Meat FAQs: Foie gras, Pig processing, Venison processing, Elk and
    caribou, Wagyu and Kobe beef; by Tanith Tyrr)

    * http://www.macscouter.com/Cooking/DutchOven.html
    (Dutch oven cooking)

    * http://www.eaglequest.com/~bbq/index.html
    (BBQ FAQ, by William W. Wight)

    * http://www.bbqguide.com/meat_smoking_and_curing_faq.htm
    (Meat smoking and curing FAQ, maintained by Richard Thead)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/food/preserving/part1/
    (rec.food.preserving FAQ, maintained by Eric Decker)

    * http://edible-complex.home.att.net/faq-spices.html
    (Spices FAQ, by Daniel M. Germán)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/food/culinary-herbs/part1/
    (Culinary herbs FAQ, maintained by Henriette Kress)

    * http://members.tripod.com/~BayGourmet/truffles.html
    (Truffles (fungi) FAQ, by Tanith Tyrr)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/food/chocolate/faq/
    (Chocolate FAQ, by Monee Kidd)

    ----------------------------------------
    10.2 Beverages

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/caffeine-faq/
    (Coffee and caffeine FAQ, by Alex Lopez-Ortiz)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/drink/tea/faq/
    (Tea FAQ, by Christopher Roberson)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/drink/wine-faq/part1/
    (Wine FAQ, by Bradford S. Brown)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/crafts/winemaking-faq/
    (Winemaking FAQ, by Don Buchan)

    * http://www.beerinfo.com/rfdb/faq.html
    (Beer FAQ, by John A. Lock)

    * http://hbd.org/brewery/library/absfaq.html
    (Absinthe FAQ, by Matthew Baggott)

    ----------------------------------------
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets

    * http://www.cyber-kitchen.com/rfcj/kosherfaq.htm
    (Kosher food, by Pat Gold, Beth Greenfeld, and Ruth Heiges)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/vegetarian/faq/
    (rec.food.veg (vegetarian) FAQ, by Michael Traub)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/food/fatfree/faq/
    (Fat-free FAQ, by Michelle Dick)

    ----------------------------------------
    10.4 Miscellaneous

    * http://FAQs.jmas.co.jp/FAQs/cooking/common-topics
    (Commonly discussed topics, by Stephanie da Silva)

    * http://www.thepurplehouse.net/wedding/cookware.txt
    (Cookware FAQ, by Oliver Sharp)

    * http://www.sff.net/people/pff/sharp.txt
    (Knife FAQs: Plain vs. serrated edges, Knife sharpening,
    Steel types, by Joe Talmadge)

    * http://www.survival-center.com/foodfaq/ff1-toc.htm
    (Food storage FAQ, by Alan T. Hagan)

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/sci/food-science-faq/part1/
    (Food science FAQ, by Rachel Zemser, J. Ralph Blanchfield, and Paul
    King)

    ----------------------------------------
    10.5 Humour

    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs/food/kool-aid-faq/
    (Kool-Aid FAQ, by Paul and Bess Dawson-Schmidt)

    * http://www.cybernothing.org/faqs/bofh-food-faq
    (bofh.food FAQ, by J.D. Falk)

    ----------------------------------------
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site

    Damsel in dis Dress used to maintain what many people regarded as the
    'unofficial' rec.food.cooking site, with sections devoted to rfc chat,
    rfc 'signature' dishes, rfc cook-in reports, and rfc birthdays.
    Chatty Cathy is currently in charge of the site, which contains all of
    the above and more, particularly a link to the rfc map set up by
    Christine Dabney. The site is located at
    http://www.recfoodcooking.org

    ----------------------------------------
    12 Sources

    Lots of wonderful people helped compile this list - again, much
    acknowledgement is due to Cindy Kandolf for putting this entire thing
    together and to Amy Gale for maintaining it and adding to it for many
    years.

    ----------------------------------------
    12.1 Contributors

    The other wonderful people are :

    carolynd(at)sail.labs.tek.com
    ekman(at)netc.om.com
    arielle(at)aronga.com (Stephanie da Silva)
    rs7x+(at)andrew.cmu.edu
    jane(at)cse.lbl.gov
    jonog(at)g2syd.genasys.com.au anita(at)devvax.mincom.oz.au
    sbookey(at)ep.ieee.org (Seth Bookey) ccd(at)ccdadfa.cc.adfa.oz.au
    pmmuggli(at)uokmax.ecn.uoknor.edu chu(at)acsu.buffalo.edu
    cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com dudek(at)ksr.com
    aem(at)symbiosis.ahp.com wald(at)theory.lcs.mit.edu
    harvey(at)indyvax.iupui.edu ed(at)pa.dec.com
    ndkj(at)vax5.cit.cornell.edu ekman(at)netc.om.com
    otten(at)icase.edu jane(at)cse.lbl.gov
    loosemore-sandra(at)cs.yale.edu mworley(at)mathcs.emory.edu
    kts(at)michael.udev.cdc.com cc(at)dcs.edinburgh.ac.uk
    leander(at)ccwf.cc.utexas.edu
    cduff(at)sugar.NeoSoft.COM
    lvirden(at)cas.org (Larry W. Virden)
    hammond(at)niwot.scd.ucar.EDU (Steve Hammond)
    dfw(at)thumper.bellcore.com (Doris Woods)
    gibbsm(at)ll.mit.edu (MargAret D Gibbs)
    rickert(at)cco.caltech.edu (Keith Warren Rickert)
    Simon Kershaw Simon.Kershaw(at)Smallworld.co.uk
    Joel Offenberg offenbrg(at)trifle.gsfc.nasa.gov
    grant(at)oj.rsmas.miami.edu (Grant Basham)
    lmak(at)cbnewsf.cb.att.com (louisa.l.mak)
    twain(at)carson.u.washington.edu (Barbara Hlavin)
    hz225wu(at)unidui.uni-duisburg.de (Micaela Pantke)
    sfisher(at)megatest.com (Scott Fisher)
    byrne(at)rcf.rsmas.miami.edu (Charlie Byrne)
    jmk5u(at)Virginia.EDU
    bae(at)gpu.utcc.utoronto.ca (Beverly Erlebacher)
    rlwilliams(at)gallua.gallaudet.edu (Skip)
    hwalden(at)science-store.chem.wayne.edu (Heather Walden)
    mcenter(at)amoco.com (Mike Center, PSC)
    kevin(at)eye.com (Kevin Stokker)
    steven(at)surya.cs.ucla.edu (Steven Berson)
    eric.decker(at)canrem.com (Eric Decker)
    peteo(at)ford.wpd.sgi.com (Peter Orelup)
    sk10003(at)cus.cam.ac.uk (Scott Kleinman)
    David Casseres casseres(at)apple.com
    Ted.Taylor(at)p4214.f104.n109.z1.fidonet.org (Ted Taylor)
    george(at)dfds.ml.com (George Minkovsky)
    Alison(at)moose.demon.co.uk (Alison Scott)
    jae(at)world.std.com (Jon A Edelston)
    conrad(at)qpsx.oz.au (Conrad Drake)
    nadel(at)attatash.aero.org (Miriam Nadel)
    patricia(at)cs.utexas.edu (Patricia M. Burson)
    betsey(at)columbia.edu (Elizabeth Fike)
    leah(at)smith.chi.il.us (Leah Smith)
    steve(at)unipalm.co.uk (Steve Ladlow)
    STEVE SKHNY(at)CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU
    "Sudheer Apte" apte(at)loki.hks.com
    Diane Ferrell, Leslie Basel
    rankin(at)scubed.com (Tom Rankin)
    vev(at)msen.com (Vince Vielhaber)
    HUYQ78A(at)prodigy.com (MS PHYLLIS T SPAETH)
    lenf(at)netc.om.com (Len Freedman)
    apforz(at)pfood.win.net (Andy Pforzheimer)
    wnukoski(at)crypt.erie.ge.com (George Wnukoski)
    Dan_Masi(at)Warren.mentorg.com
    robinc(at)oanet.com (Robin Cowdrey)
    merlin(at)ion.com.au (Merlin Zener)
    "Frank Fileccia" surplus(at)telusplanet.net
    "Rodger Whitlock" totototo(at)mail.pacificcoast.net
    Damsel in dis Dress damsel.in.dis.dress(at)gmail.com
    Shankar Bhattacharyya sbhattac(at)idt.net
    Sophie Laplante laplante(at)lri.fr
    Andrew Nicholson andrewn(at)lesto.com
    Ed Keith edkeith(at)home.com
    Read rweaver(at)igc.org
    T. Terrell Banks terry(at)banks-usa.com
    William Chuang wchuang(at)MIT.EDU
    Scott Jordan sjordan(at)ntrnet.net
    Terry Simpson terry(at)connected-systems.com
    Bill Boylan bill.boylan(at)cox.net
    Max Hauser maxREMOVE(at)THIStdl.com
    Vilco a(at)b.invalid

    ----------------------------------------
    12.2 Bibliography

    This is a new section composed of the acknowledgements previously
    sprinkled through the text. More information on these books will be
    welcomed.

    1) "Trolldom in the Kitchen"
    Pat Bjaaland and Melody Favish

    2) "Larousse Gastronomique"
    ISBN 0 7493 0316 6

    Larousse Gastronomique
    The New American Edition of the World's Greatest Culinary
    Encyclopedia
    By Jenifer Harvey Lang
    Hardcover, 1193 pages
    ISBN: 0517570327
    List Price: $60.00
    Random House
    Publication Date: 10/01/88

    3) "Still Life with Menu" (K)
    Mollie Katzen
    Revised trade paperback 1995
    Still Life with Menu Cookbook
    Trade Paperback, 256 Pages, Revised, Ten Speed, March 1995
    ISBN: 0898156696 (pbk)
    Author: Katzen, Mollie
    ISBN: 0898156696 (pbk.)

    Still Life With Menu Cookbook by Katzen, Mollie
    fifty new meatless menus with original art
    Berkeley, California, Ten Speed Press, 1988
    ISBN 0898152569

    4) "Cookery in Colour" (P)
    Marguerite Patten

    5) "The Rotation Diet" (RD)

    6) "My Fun-to-cook-book" (S)
    Ursula Sedgwick

    7) "The New Food Lover's Companion"

    8) "Michel Guérard's Cuisine Minceur"
    Michel Guérard

    9) "Mastering the Art of French Cooking"
    Julia Child

    10) "The Oxford Companion to Food"
    Alan Davidson

    11) "Julia and Jacques Cooking At Home"
    by Julia Child and Jacques Pépin

    ----------------------------------------

  2. #2
    George Shirley Guest

  3. #3
    Melba's Jammin' Guest

    Default Re: FAQ File

    In article <[email protected]>, [email protected]
    wrote:

    > Is this the file you are referring to? John


    (Snipped most of 2847 lines.)
    It is not. That is the rec.food.cooking file as indicated in the
    paragraph beneath the copyright information.
    >
    > Archive-name: cooking/faq
    > Maintained-by: Victor Sack <[email protected]>


    > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    > |Copyright © Victor Sack 2003-2009, Copyright © Mary Frye and Victor |
    > |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright © Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright © Cindy |
    > |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright © by |
    > |their particular authors. |
    > | |
    > |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    > |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |

    --
    Barb, Mother Superior, HOSSSPoJ
    Holy Order of the Sacred Sisters of St. Pectina of Jella
    "Always in a jam, never in a stew; sometimes in a pickle."
    Pepparkakor particulars posted 11-29-2010;
    http://web.me.com/barbschaller

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